//graizoah.com/afu.php?zoneid=3337959 methadone-anonymous

methadone-anonymous

Methadone HCL Tablet, Soluble. ... This medication is used to treat addiction to opioids (such as heroin) as part of an approved treatment program. Methadone belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics.

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Monday, April 6, 2020

April 06, 2020

Key concepts of the pandemic!

Key concepts of the pandemic!

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, already affects more than 100 countries and has caused more than 150,000 infections. It is a disease that spreads very quickly, although in the vast majority of cases it produces the symptoms of a common cold.

We explain the key concepts to understand how the virus works and how it is acting to stop its expansion.

Viruses are infectious agents. They are at the limit of what could be considered a living being because they need the cell of another living being to live. Once inside the body that serves as a "host," the virus infects its cells and multiplies to survive.

There are millions of types of viruses, which have different forms and affect different types of cells, so they can cause different diseases.


SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses, a type of virus that has a kind of halo or corona around it. This feature allows it to better adhere to the host's cells, makes it easier for them to multiply and spread throughout the body. Coronaviruses affect the respiratory system.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

December 28, 2019

The 5 best serums with vitamin C to improve the texture of your skin

Image result for c vitamini cilde faydaları


The skin of our face or complexion is an extremely sensitive area that requires numerous vitamins and special care to always enjoy a healthy, beautiful and impure-free appearance. Vitamin C is a component that offers multiple health benefits of our skin, as it helps you recover your nutrients and natural texture. That is why this time we show you the best vitamin C serum options so that you start giving your face the care it deserves.

1. TruSkin Naturals: fórmula facial con vitamina C


Image result for truskin naturals vitamin c serum

Vitamin C facial serum formula to treat impurities that can affect the health of your skin. Topical made with hyaluronic acid and vitamin E, which attacks the most common signs of aging, including shine, firmness, fine lines, wrinkles, dark spots and sunspots.


This serum formula stands out for being made from natural plants, allowing the skin to absorb the necessary nutrients to remove impurities.
2. Tree of Life: vitamin C serum for all skin types
Image result for tree of life beauty vitamin c serum
Facial serum with vitamin C, which combines natural and organic ingredients that seek to hydrate and nourish your complexion deeply. Also, this formula is responsible for combating the signs of premature aging, erasing lines and spots by age.


If you are looking to nourish your complexion with just 2 drops of facial serum, this formula is ideal for you. Reduces up to 96% of sunburn cells, as well as dark spots.
3. LilyAna Naturals: vitamin C with hyaluronic acid
Image result for lilyana naturals vitamin c serum

Combination of vitamin C, vitamin E and hyaluronic acid in a facial serum. It has natural and organic ingredients that help fight the signs of age, spots, acne, wrinkles and spots caused by ultraviolet rays.


This formulation of vitamins, natural oils and hyaluronic acid will produce visible changes and improvements in the appearance of your skin, acting mostly at night, in order to increase the collagen and improve the clarity, texture and overall appearance of your skin.

4. Eva Naturals: anti-aging vitamin C serum

Serum formula of vitamin C, vitamin E, 2% retinol, 3.5% niacinamide, 5% hyaluronic acid, 2% salicylic acid and 10% MSM. It is an effective corrector of dark spots, a hyperpigmentation treatment and acne treatment.

Image result for tree of life beauty vitamin c serumThis anti-aging serum is loaded with antioxidants, which help you revitalize the appearance of your face, showing improvements in a matter of days from the first application. Remove impurities and nourish your complexion.
5. Orlette: restorative serum facial treatment
Image result for tree of life beauty vitamin c serum
  • Serum formula of vitamin C, vitamin E, 2% retinol, 3.5% niacinamide, 5% hyaluronic acid, 2% salicylic acid and 10% MSM. It is an effective corrector of dark spots, a hyperpigmentation treatment and acne treatment.
  • This anti-aging serum is loaded with antioxidants, which help you revitalize the appearance of your face, showing improvements in a matter of days from the first application. Remove impurities and nourish your complexion.
  • 5. Orlette: restorative serum facial treatment


Tuesday, December 24, 2019

December 24, 2019

Methadone Could Be The Most Indicated Non-Addictive Opioid Against Chronic Pain

           One in five people in Europe suffers chronic pain. For its treatment, a new study indicates that it is more appropriate to administer methadone instead of morphine. The results reveal the importance of promoting new therapeutic alternatives that take advantage of the effectiveness of opiates and avoid the side effects derived from tolerance and addiction.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."


(Chronic pain responds very well to opioids at first, but in the long term the treatment fails due to tolerance and the risk of addiction)

               Administering methadone instead of morphine is a more appropriate pharmacological treatment in the fight against chronic pain, according to a new article published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation in which experts Vicent Casadó, Estefanía Moreno and Verònica Casadó Anguera, of the Institute, participate of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) and the Network Biomedical Research Center on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED).
              In the work, which describes in molecular models and animals the mechanism of molecular action that produces the therapeutic benefits of methadone, experts from the National Institutes of Health, the University of Maryland and the Massachusetts General Hospital (USA) also participate, among other institutions.
             Addictive substances affect a nervous circuit - the mesolimbic pathway - that is related to the brain's natural reward mechanisms. This mesolimbic reward system is based on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which release dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and are responsible for the addictive response to opioids and other compounds.
             Specifically, MOR receptors promote the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and, therefore, participate in both the analgesic and addictive effects of opiates. In contrast, Gal1R receptors counteract the effects of MOR receptors, since they cause a decrease in dopamine release.
             Both the Gal1R receptor and the MOR belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), the largest group of membrane proteins involved in cell signal transduction and in the control of essential cell functions (neurotransmission, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, etc.). Therefore, its role is key in many dysfunctions related to pathologies and in the physiological response to drugs.
            In addition, it has been shown that the ability to form dimers between GPCR receptors (homodimers or heterodimers) is associated with the acquisition of new pharmacological and functional properties different from those of their individual components, a condition that allows finer control of their physiological functions. 
            In this context, designing drugs that interact with these oligomeric complexes of some receptors - with a specific location - involved in a specific pathology would allow for new strategies to reduce side effects and improve the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments.
            Methadone versus Morphine
           According to the new work, in the murine models studied a high percentage of the Gal1R and MOR receptors form MOR-Gal1R heteromers in the ventral tegmental area (but not in the spinal cord).PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."
Image result for Por lo tanto, los efectos generados por la activación de los receptores MOR del área tegmental ventral –que forman heterómeros con los receptores Gal1R– podrían contrarrestarse mediante la coadministración de ligandos de Gal1R con opiáceos.

          Since methadone acts preferentially on MOR receptors when they do not form heteromers with Gal1Rs, their effect is mainly peripheral. For this reason, methadone's ability to activate the dopaminergic system is lower compared to morphine and fentanyl, which can act interchangeably on MOR receptors or on MOR-Gal1R complexes. This would explain the greater proportion of analgesic effects of methadone administration, a substance that could be profiled as the most appropriate non-addictive opioid to treat chronic pain.
(The work describes in cellular and animal models the mechanism of molecular action that produces the therapeutic benefits of methadone)
         According to experts, the ability to form heteromers could also be used as a new therapeutic strategy to counteract the addictive dopamine effects of opiates. It should be remembered that, in previous work, the team had already shown that galanin - neuropeptide with neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties - is capable of causing a decrease in the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."
        Therefore, the effects generated by the activation of the MOR receptors of the ventral tegmental area - which form heteromers with the Gal1R receptors - could be counteracted by co-administration of Gal1R ligands with opiates.




         




Saturday, December 21, 2019

December 21, 2019

A Qualitative Study of Methadone Patients

Learn about methadone and its treatment methods
Methadone is a drug that is used to relieve pain, as methadone belongs to the group of narcotic therapies, and it is also used in the treatment of various types of pain, including moderate and severe, as methadone works to inhibit all pain receptors in the central nervous system, so doctors resort To treat drug addiction by methadone, it should not be used except by the physician directly attending the case of the addicted person. In the event that large doses of methadone are used or for long periods without the doctor’s guidance, it causes the person a type of methadone addiction so the person should not use c Large or increasing steadily At the use of methadone to relieve the pain suffered by the person does not even lead to the opposite result so you must comply with the instructions of the physician regarding the required doses of methadone and how to use and the type of property.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."


Uses of methadone:

Methadone is used as a drug to get rid of severe cases of addiction to drug types such as heroin, cocaine, opium, and others, as methadone works to alleviate withdrawal symptoms of anesthetic substance from the body, where methadone is available on the market under the following trade names: Methadose, Dolphin, and methadone are drugs A strong analgesic against opiate anesthetic receptors and works to reduce the action of receptors, from opiates to in turn reduce the side effects of the patient's withdrawal from drug addiction, which makes him in a condition that must be addressed to continue to treat his addiction. Reducing the dose of methadone in a gradual manner until the patient is completely recovered, and methadone also works to clamp the nerve messages that reach the brain causing dry coughs that lead to the irritation of the lungs and cause lung cancer as methadone relieves pain because it is a strong opioid analgesic, but one of the most important alerts Before using methadone, it should not be used without consulting a doctor and taking doses according to its determination for each individual case, so that the patient does not have methadone addiction, and it may be taken under the supervision of addiction treatment centers as well.


How to use methadone as an addiction treatment:

It is worth noting that the method of using methadone in the areas of drug addiction treatment is in two cases
First case:
Addiction treatment is carried out in addiction treatment centers and for a specific period to help get rid of withdrawal symptoms of heroin addiction, as this method has proven studies and research related to the field of addiction treatment, as well as scientific experiments that are effective and useful in ridding the patient of heroin addiction and relieving withdrawal symptoms caused by stopping heroin addiction.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."

The second case:
As for the second way in which methadone is used to treat addiction, it is used as a substitute for heroin after addicts withdraw from taking heroin and their exit from therapeutic clinics from addiction. Many countries have resorted to treatment of addiction in this way due to the presence of many heroin addicts in the country and this method is used to cause Stability and increasing it among these addicts by alleviating the health and psychological withdrawal symptoms resulting from the withdrawal of the narcotic substance they are accustomed to from their bodies to facilitate their regularity in work and return to their normal personal and work life.


And it has also proven effective in relieving mental disorders that may lead in some cases to the criminal behavior resulting from heroin addiction, under strict precautionary restrictions through some licensed and specific programs for methadone therapists, because it requires a significant expansion of methadone knowledge well due to a large number of its multiple side effects as well This method of using methadone is done on a daily basis to go to these treatment centers to obtain the necessary dose from taking methadone under the supervision of a specialist.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."


The authorization to use methadone is in the form of a liquid in order to reduce the chance of some addicts tampering with eating large quantities of it, and despite the existence of these severe restrictions, it has caused some problems by addicts, and when no instructions for taking methadone are made, the result is the emergence of a group of addicts coming to Eating it, the risk of which doubles as it may reach sudden death when excessive consumption or mixing with another drug.



The role of methadone therapy in developed countries:
Methadone belongs to the v1937 group of powerful opiate medications from German scientists at
Methadone belongs to the v1937 group of powerful opioid medications from German scientists in the field of pain relief. Methadone has been used as a treatment for heroin addiction and a pain reliever caused by the withdrawal of drug and heroin addicts in particular since the early 1960s in the United States of America And, in the Russian Federation, according to the Federal Service for Control there for drug trafficking, nearly one and a half million heroin addicts have been detected in the country.

 This made the Russian government legalize and license addiction treatment centers and psychiatrists the freedom to treat with methadone for this serious reason and convert it from an addictive drug into a therapeutic substance from the addiction itself. From heroin addiction, and because methadone belongs to the group of opioid analgesics as it belongs to the group of opium and morphine.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."
The methadone treatment if ingested is well absorbed from the gut, which reaches 90% and about thirty minutes in the blood, so that methadone begins to work as a pain reliever, and its concentration remains a maximum in the body within four hours after taking it. This methadone doses accumulate in all tissues of the body, so age Half of the organism reaches fourteen hours, but the effect of methadone as a painkiller lasts for only four to five hours. During this time, the addict has a great state of euphoria and happiness. Excessive use of methadone leads to a disorder in high nervous activities, confusion, hallucinations and some visual disturbances.
The role of methadone therapy in developed countries:
The field of pain relief. Methadone has been started as a treatment for heroin addiction and a pain reliever caused by the withdrawal of drug addicts and heroin in particular since the early sixties of the last century in the United States of America, and in the Russian Federation, according to the Federal Service for Control there for drug trafficking. About one and a half million heroin addicts in the country.PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites."

 This made the Russian government legalize and license addiction treatment centers and psychiatrists the freedom to treat with methadone for this serious reason and convert it from an addictive drug into a therapeutic substance from the addiction itself. From heroin addiction, and because methadone belongs to the group of opioid analgesics as it belongs to the group of opium and morphine.

The methadone treatment if ingested is well absorbed from the gut, which reaches 90% and about thirty minutes in the blood, so that methadone begins to work as a pain reliever, and its concentration remains a maximum in the body within four hours after taking it. This methadone doses accumulate in all tissues of the body, so age Half of the organism reaches fourteen hours, but the effect of methadone as a painkiller lasts for only four to five hours. During this time, the addict has a great state of euphoria and happiness. Excessive use of methadone leads to a disorder in high nervous activities, confusion, hallucinations, and some visual disturbances.



Contraindications to methadone use:
It is known that every medicinal drug, whatever its effectiveness in relieving pain, is accompanied by eating this issue that this drug has contraindications with which it is impossible to take the drug, and among these drugs methadone must read these contraindications well in order not to deteriorate the patient's health and among these contraindications:

Methadone should be avoided for patients who are hypersensitive to methadone or any of its ingredients.
Methadone should be avoided for patients with obstructive airway or respiratory diseases, and there are types of severe respiratory depression.
Methadone should be avoided for patients with suspected ileus or poisoning that have caused watery diarrhea.
Also, you should stay away from taking methadone for patients who take selegiline treatment because of the conflict of the active substance between it and the treatment of methadone.
Before taking methadone for a pregnant woman, you should consult her physician or pharmacist for the possibility of a risk to the fetus in some cases of pregnancy. Also, it is not recommended to use methadone for the breastfeeding woman because it is excreted in breastfeeding breast milk.
Care should be taken when using older people to treat methadone, as they are affected by increased sensitivity, unlike young people, methadone components.
You must inform the attending physician when taking methadone and afterward the following symptoms have occurred:

Abdominal pain and disorders not diagnosed, or adrenal insufficiency, if there are gallbladder and biliary disorders, depression and nervous system depression, liver disorders and disorders, kidney disorders and disorders, a condition of enlarged prostate gland, problems and disorders in the urination process, And in the event of excessive obesity or breathing problems.
Methadone may cause thyroid disorders.
Methadone may affect the central nervous system, in addition to its effect on the patient's mental activity, and therefore caution must be followed carefully.
When doing activities that require concentration, such as driving a car or using dangerous machinery, alcohol should not be consumed while taking methadone.


Side effects of methadone treatment:
There are also side effects for the treatment of methadone, and we must be alert to them well and not to take methadone except after consulting a doctor. Also, the pharmacist must not dispense the drug without clearance from the doctor or treatment centers for addiction, as the treatment of methadone has many side effects, including the following:

Methadone intake may cause nervous tension, anxiety, insomnia, difficulty sleeping, and trouble during it, as well as dry mouth, vomiting, nausea, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, lack of desire and sexual ability of both sexes.
The person taking methadone should not take any of the drowsy or soothing remedies such as insomnia, allergies, cold, narcotic, epilepsy, and muscle relaxant treatments, in conjunction with taking methadone without the permission of the doctor or pharmacist and consult with them for conflicts with their work with methadone.
If you take the following medicines, you must inform the attending physician to request the necessary analyzes and examinations before deciding on the treatment by taking methadone. Among these medicines are the following:
Biologic diuretics such as ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and erythromycin, as well as antifungals such as itraconazole ketoconazole and other high blood pressure treatments such as verapamil, diltiazem, and heart disease, or treatments used against viruses or AIDS diseases such as venazine, as well as treatments for convulsive disorders or epilepsy.
Methadone use may cause physical and psychological addiction, which makes it difficult for the patient to dispense with, so throughout the period of methadone treatment, you should consult a doctor at every stage of methadone treatment, determine quantities, accept them, and supply them according to the doctor’s vision. When severe side effects occur, the patient must be transferred immediately to the hospital or call The attending physician.



Forms of methadone:
Methadone therapy is available under the following trade names: Methadose, Dolophine, and is available as an injection solution at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, syrup at a concentration of 5 with / 5 ml concentrated, tablets in doses of 10 mg, 5 mg, 40 mg, and stored in a circle.